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Figure 8.1 The waveform duringa short period (a little over two vocal fold vibrations) in mypronunciation of [A], as in "caught."
Figure 8.2 Acoustic recordsof the phrase "Jane, Pat and John" The upper part ofthe figure shows the fundamental frequency (pitch). The waveform,with a narrow phonetic transcription, is below it. At the bottomthere is a time scale.
Figure 8.4 Waveforms of "Saypat now; say pad now; say bad now; say spat now." Only thefirst of these phrases has been segmented. You should try to segmentthe other three phrases yourself.
Figure 8.5 Waveform and pitchrecords of "Bonny told Peter she'd plans to leave,"said in two different ways.
Figure8.7 A spectrogram of the words "heed, hid,head, had, hod, hawed, hood, who'd" as spoken by a male speakerof American English. The locations of the first three formantsare shown be arrows.
Figure 8.8 A spectrogram ofthe words "heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood, whod"as spoken in a British accent. The locations of the first threeformants are shown be arrows.
Figure 8.9 A formant chartshowing the frequency of the first formant on the ordinate (thevertical axis) plotted against second formant on the abscissa(the horizontal axis) for eight American English vowels. The scalesare marked in Hz, arranged at Bark scale intervals.
Figure 8.10 A blank formantchart for showing the relation between vowels. Using the informationin Figures 8.7 and 8.8, plot the frequency of the first formanton the ordinate (the vertical axis) and the second formant onthe abscissa (the horizontal axis).
Figure 8.11 A spectrogramof the words "a bab, a dad, a gag".
Figure 8.12 A spectrogramof "a Pam, a tan, a kang". The arrows indicate the oralclosures forming the nasal consonants.
Figure 8.13 A spectrogramof "fie, thigh, sigh, shy". The frequency scale goesup to 8,000 Hz in this figure. The arrows mark the onsets of thesecond formant transitions. Only the first word is shown in full.The second part of the diphthong has been deleted for the otherwords.
Figure 8.14 A spectrogramof "ever, weather, fizzer, pleasure".
Figure 8.15 A spectrogramof "led, red, wed, yell".
Figure 8.16 A spectrogramof "She came back and started again".
Figure 8.17 A spectrogramof "I should have thought spectrograms were unreadable."Spoken in a normal, but rapid, conversational style (British English).
Figure 8.18 A spectrogramof "He left here three days ago".
Figure 8.19 A spectrogramof an ordinary English sentence containing no names (British accent).
Figure 8.20 Wide-band (upper partof the figure) and narrow-band (lower part) spectrogram of thequestion "Is Pat sad, or mad?" The 5tth, 10tth and 15thharmonics have been marked by white squares in two of the vowels.
Figure 8.21 A spectrogramof the words "heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood, who'd"as spoken by a female speaker of American English. The locationsof the first three formants are shown be arrows.
Figure 8.22 A formant chartshowing some of the vowels of two speakers of Californian English.The frequency of the first formant is plotted on the ordinate(the vertical axis), and the difference between the frequenciesof the second and first formants is plotted on the abscissa (thehorizontal axis).
8. Exercise B
8. Exercise C